This is a guest article submission on hybrid vehicles.
The hybrid electric vehicle is powered by two engines including the conventional internal combustion engine and electrical power train system. The power train system increases the fuel economy because it relies on electricity to power the engine rather than gasoline. There are large range hybrid electric vehicles on the market.
Modern hybrid electric vehicle uses the regenerative braking is responsible of converting the kinetic energy into battery replenishing energy. Some hybrid cars generate the electricity by spinning an electrical generator in the internal combustion engine. In this way, the battery can be recharged while the user is driving it on the highway. Many hybrid electric vehicle reduce idle emissions by turning off the internal combustion engine when the car is not moving. However, the engine will be restarted again when needed. In addition, the hybrid electric car will produce less emissions comparing with a same sized vehicle powered by gasoline.
The first hybrid car in the world is the Ferdinand Porsche in 1900. The car was not released into the market and made available to the public. In 1998, Toyota release its first hybrid car Toyota Prius. After two years, the Honda debut its hybrid car Honda Insight in the marketplace. Although it was initially viewed as unnecessary, many people began to see its importance when the gasoline price significantly increases. As a result, automobile manufacturers start to make hybrid cars in the late 2000s.
Hybrid electric car become successfully during the 1990s after Honda Insight and Toyota Prius are released to the market. The hybrid electric cars possess an internal combustion engine so that the wheels can move without having to covert to and from electric energy. In 2004, Toyota Prius receive a high demand so that the company develops a newer model. The new model has a modern design and is less expensive while offering up to forty percent of fuel efficiency. Honda also offers its own hybrid car including Insight, Civic and Accord models. Audi was the first automobile manufacturer in the Europe to come up with a hybrid vehicle called Audi duo.
Hybrid vehicle can be classified into three categories including parallel hybrids, series hybrids, and series parallel hybrids. In parallel hybrids, the internal combustion engine and electric motor is connected to the mechanical transmission. Parallel hybrids have smaller battery packs because they depend on the regenerating braking. The internal combustion engine in parallel hybrid also plays a role in offering supplementing battery recharging. Parallel hybrid offers a higher efficiency for highway driving compares to urban driving.
Series hybrids are only powered by the electric motor. The internal combustion engine acts as a generator to power the electric motor. In addition, the internal combustion engine also helps to recharge the batteries. Series hybrids have a larger battery pack compare with the parallel hybrid so they are more expensive.
Series parallel hybrids has the ability to operate as a series hybrid when driven in lower speed and as parallel hybrid when driven in high speed therefore they cost much higher.